46 ff (trans. Then he built a hut with mats of wattled reeds and fixed it on the ground: he put on Kadmos a shepherd's dress, so that no one could know him in disguise, when he had clad his sham herdsman in this make-believe costume; he gave clever Kadmos the deceiving pan-pipes, part of the plot to pilot Typhaon to his death. . Don't waste your time in asking me why I am going here this day. ], Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. § 2. imitating Ekho (Echo) returned the sounds of his pipes . "You who dwell in the land of the Arkadians (Arcadians), an abode wintry with battering snowstorms, beast-tending Pan, I shall glorify, putting together all-glorious lines in this skilful composition, lord, lines hard for the unskilled to understand, you beast who serve the Mousai (Muses), who utter soothing song, wax-poured. Tygers of Pan Tang is a New Wave Of British Heavy Metal band originating from Whitley Bay in the North-East of England. 390 ff (trans. His unseen presence aroused panic in those who traversed his realm. Lamb) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) (Theocrit. Pan has a goat's feet and two horns, and wears a lynx-pelt. After creating the instrument he was very rarely seen without the instrument in his presence. So the child was called Aegipan, and Jove, Aegiochus (Wielder of the Aegis). The pan flute or pan pipe (also known as panflute or panpipes) is an ancient musical instrument based on the principle of the Closed tube, … 196 & 257 ff : 46 ff (trans. § 5, i. 751 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. ", Aesop, Fables 74 (from Chambry, Babrius, Fabulae Aesopeae 23 & Syntipas 12) (trans. two aspects of the god Pan--Hunter and Shepherd], the sons of Hermes, who divided his love between two Nymphai (Nymphs); for one he visited the bed of Sose, the highland prophetess, and begat a son inspired with the divine voice of prophecy, Agreus (Hunter), well versed in the beast-slaying sport of the hunt; the other was Nomios (Shepherd), whom the pasturing sheep loved well, one practised in the shepherd's pipe, for whom Hermes sought the bed of Penelope the country Nymphe. : Pan ruled over shepherds, hunters and rustic music. Indeed she was mistaken. She has left the hills and moves restless over the waves. : Arcadian hunters used to scourge the statue of the god if they had been disappointed in the chase. 10.) "[On inventions :] Pan son of Mercurius [Hermes] [invented] the pipe and single flute, Midas in Phrygia the slanting flute, Marsyas in the same nation the double-flute. 11 (trans. Then Pan, who declares and always moves (aei polôn) all, is rightly called goat-herd (aipolos), being the double-natured son of Hermes, smooth in his upper parts, rough and goat-like in his lower parts. Pan could be multiplied into a swarm of Pans, and even be given individual names, as in Nonnus' Dionysiaca, where the god Pan had twelve sons that helped Dionysus in his war against the Indians. : Pausanias, Description of Greece 10. ", Castorion of Soli, Fragment 310 (from Athenaeus, Scholars at Dinner) (trans. "And goat-herd Pan who went with him [the hero Kadmos (Cadmus)] gave Zeus Almighty cattle and sheep and rows of horned goats [during his war with Typhoeus]. Page, Vol. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) : You are watching Pan Flute Lamb of God on Godtube.com the largest video sharing platform offering online Christian videos with faith-based, family friendly content. . Deor. Later he came to the aid of Zeus in his battle with Typhoeus, by stealing back Zeus' stolen sinews. Ital. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. He called her gently to him, lovesick and weary as she was, and soothed her with these consoling words. "Pan, Nymphe-leader, darling of the Naiades, adornment of golden choruses, lord of winsome muse when he pours forth the god-inspired siren-song of the melodious syrinx, and stepping nimbly to the melody leaps down from shadowy caves, moving his all-shape body, fine dancer, fine of face, conspicuous with blond beard. His father was usually said to be Hermes, but a comic invention held that he was the product of an orgy … With these words, she passed away from the lair of wayfaring Pan. . The name Pan is also a Greek prefix meaning "all" and, at one time, Pan may have been a much more powerful, all-encompassing figure. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) 31; and about his other amours see Georg. In other versions, Pan had fallen in love with Echo, but she scorned the love of any man but was enraptured by Narcissus. : "At evening, as he [Pan] returns from the chase, he sounds his note, playng sweet and low on his pipes of reed : not even she could excel him in melody--that bird who flower-laden spring pouring forth her lament uters honey-voiced song amid the leaves. : First the human race and now perhaps you possess the canine race also, when this ill-fated wanderer is a servant for Dionysos in love next after Pan.’", Nonnus, Dionysiaca 36. I seek no more the Sikelian (Sicilian) Sea; I am terrified at this tremendous flood, and I care nothing for Polyphemos.’ 691, &c.; comp. (Theocrit. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 2. Flacc. : Callimachus, Fragment 689 (trans. : Greek Lyric V Anonymous, Fragment 936 (Inscription from the Asclepeion at Epidaurus) : Euripides, Ion 501 ff (trans. . Eclog. As a reward the king of the gods placed him amongst the stars as the Constellation Capricorn. 123; Schol. ", Propertius, Elegies 3. . Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : Sport it is to the god when he ravishes the trembling flock from their pens, and the steers trample the thickets in their flight. He was one of the youngest sons of Zeus and was brought into the story only because... he was a master/thief. Lavish complaint made he of heartless Bromius [Dionysos], of the jealous lake and jealous shaft; then spying a young plane tree with long stem and countless branches and summit aspiring to heaven he set it by him and heaped fresh sand about it and sprinkled it with the longed-for waters, and thus commanded it : ‘Live long, O tree, as the memorable token of my vow, and do thou at least stoop down and cherish the secret abode of this hard-hearted Nympha, and cover her waters with thy leaves. 20), and the sacrifices offered to him consisted of cows, rams, lambs, milk, and honey. Pan also piped a bridal tune on shrill reeds, hiding secret envy deep in his heart, Pan the master of music; and made a defaming lay for the unnatural union. In Arcadia he was the god of forests, pastures, flocks, and shepherds, and dwelt in grottoes (Eurip. ", Nonnus, Dionysiaca 17. 67 ff (trans. ", Ovid, Fasti 1. 28. On his back he wears a spotted lynx-pelt, and he delights in high-pitched songs in a soft meadow where crocuses and sweet-smelling hyacinths bloom at random in the grass.  This theory influenced the Neopagan notion of the Horned God, as an archetype of male virility and sexuality. To star-eyed Olympos goes the all-tune sound, sprinkling the company of the Olympian gods with immortal muse. 78, Pan is associated with a mother goddess, perhaps Rhea or Cybele; Pindar refers to maidens worshipping Cybele and Pan near the poet's house in Boeotia. There at Pan’s feet is the lost otter boy. Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 191 (trans. In Zeus' battle with Typhon, Aegipan and Hermes stole back Zeus' "sinews" that Typhon had hidden away in the Corycian Cave. "[As Dionysos prepared to engage the Indians in battle :] Bakkhos (Bacchus) [Dionysos] sent two heralds to give proclamation of war, either to fight or to fly: and with them went goatfoot Pan, his long-haired beard shadowing his whole chest . (Paus. I have another and higher voyage which Rainy Zeus and found me. 300 ff : 96, 239, vii. 107); during the heat of mid day he used to slumber, and was very indignant when any one disturbed him. . He was associated by the Romans with Faunus.Originally an Arcadian deity, his name is a Doric contraction of paon (“pasturer”) but was commonly supposed in antiquity to be connected with pan (“all”). "The herdsman Pan sang loudly, pouring out his victorious note, drawing on the Satryoi (Satyrs) to dance drunkenly after their war. 368 ff (trans. Homeric Hymn 19 to Pan (trans. 3), by Oeneis or Thymbris (Apollod. : Panikoi deimati (trans. 32. Will you ever bring off a trick like this [i.e. § 5), and at Homala in Thessaly. . Fir-trees were sacred to him, as the nymph Pitys, whom he loved, had been metamorphosed into that tree (Propert. In two late Roman sources, Hyginus and Ovid, Pan is substituted for the satyr Marsyas in the theme of a musical competition (agon), and the punishment by flaying is omitted. 78 (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 31 (trans. 3. 67 ff (trans. Beside this Pan a fire is kept burning which is never allowed to go out." . "Among the Greeks, Herakles (Heracles), Dionysos, and Pan are held to be the youngest of the gods . Afterwards, they say, angry with Poseidon and grieved at the rape of Persephone, she [Demeter] put on black apparel and shut herself up in this cavern for a long time. All natures change through thy protecting are, and all mankind thy liberal bounties share; for these, wherever dispersed through boundless space, still find thy providence support their race. He is the eponymous "Piper at the Gates of Dawn" in the seventh chapter of Kenneth Grahame's The Wind in the Willows (1908). 237, x. Like Pan, Rhea was a goddess of the wild mountains. was the daughter of Ekho (Echo)." 38. Campbell) (Greek lyric B.C.) "Some one of the powers supreme--Apollon perhaps or Pan, or Zeus [the gods of prophetic birds]--hears the shrill wailing scream of the clamorous birds, these sojourners in his realm, and against the transgressors sends Erinys (Vengeance) at last though late." Walsh) (Roman novel C2nd A.D.) : . "[Pan] Agreus (Hunter), well versed in the beast-slaying sport of the hunt. she cursed him with a doomed love]. to C1st A.D.) : . Pan's greatest conquest was that of the moon goddess Selene. Theoi Project © Copyright 2000 - 2017 Aaron J. Atsma, Netherlands & New Zealand, (Apollodorus 1.22-23, Scholiast ad Theocritus 1.123), (Herodotus 2.145, Apollodorus E7.38, Hyginus Fabulae 224, Nonnus Dionysiaca 14.67, Servius ad Aeneid 2.43), (Plato Cratylus 408b, Pliny Natural History 7.204), (Eratosthenes, Hyginus Fabulae 224, Hyginus Astr. "[During the Great Deluge :] Then Pan well soaked saw [the Nereis] Galateia swimming under a neighbouring wavebeaten rock, and sang out : ‘Where are you going, Galateia? vii. The worship of Pan began in rustic areas far from the populated city centers, and therefore, he did not have large temples built to worship him. 32 ff (trans. Rhes. ", Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 22 (trans. ", Pliny the Elder, Natural History 7. Blinding sweet, O great god Pan ! ", Pausanias, Description of Greece 10. In 1933, the Egyptologist Margaret Murray published the book, The God of the Witches, in which she theorised that Pan was merely one form of a horned god who was worshipped across Europe by a witch-cult. The Nymphai, in anger against Kerambos because of his slanders, changed him into a wood-gnawing kerambyx beetle. ", Nonnus, Dionysiaca 39. ", Nonnus, Dionysiaca 14. ", Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 3. 140) (Greek poetry C4th A.D.) : Ovid, Metamorphoses 14. 36. "The rockdwellers came also from their self-vaulted caves, bearing all the name of Pan their father the ranger of the wilderness . The first men who gave names [to the gods] were no ordinary persons, but high thinkers and great talkers . vii. to 2nd A.D.) : Boeckh; Lucian, Dial. Georg. Both were the sons of Hermes, Agreus' mother being the nymph Sose, a prophetess: he inherited his mother's gift of prophecy, and was also a skilled hunter. When will you too be a bridegroom, for Ekho (Echo) whom you chase?  In the Peter Pan stories, Peter represents a golden age of pre-civilisation in both the minds of very young children, before enculturation and education, and in the natural world outside the influence of humans. 10 : Orphic Hymn 34 to Apollo (trans. x. "Pan, they say, visited Arkadia (Arcadia). Piercing sweet by the river ! Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : The British writer and editor Mark Beech of Egaeus Press published in 2015 the limited-edition anthology Soliloquy for Pan which includes essays and poems such as "The Rebirthing of Pan" by Adrian Eckersley, "Pan's Pipes" by Robert Louis Stevenson, "Pan with Us" by Robert Frost, and "The Death of Pan" by Lord Dunsany. Although, Agreus and Nomios could have been two different aspects of the prime Pan, reflecting his dual nature as both a wise prophet and a lustful beast. 751 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. 3. 11; Virg. Panikoi deimati (trans. § 4.) Diogenes of Sinope, speaking in jest, related a myth of Pan learning masturbation from his father, Hermes, and teaching the habit to shepherds. Sometimes Pan was multiplied into a host of Panes, or a triad of gods named Agreus, Nomios, and Phorbas. ‘You are an elegant girl, and I am a rustic herdsman, but my advanced years give me the benefit of considerable experience. ", Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 2. He had the body of a satyr (legs of a goat and body of a human). ii. Rhes. After a long and fruitless search, he made a vow that, if he could only discover the thief who had stolen the Calf, he would offer a lamb in sacrifice to Hermes, Pan, and the Guardian Deities of the forest [probably Nymphs and Satyrs]. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C4th A.D.) : Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History Book 6 (summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 190) (trans. ", Nonnus, Dionysiaca 44. "Iynx . ], For MORE information on Demeter's search see DEMETER MYTHS 1. Listen to Pan, how he seems to be hymning Dionysos on the crests of Kithairon (Cithaeron), as he dances an Euian fling. . . There’s one thing that all good music has in common: space. The goat-god Aegipan was nurtured by Amalthea with the infant Zeus in Crete. "The bays and pastures of Apulia [in Italy], there he had seen a grotto deep in shade, of forest trees, hidden by slender reeds, the home of half-goat Pan, though once the Nymphae lived there. Naiades were there . 32. in fin. 16 ff (trans. . Echo wasted away, but her voice could still be heard in caves and other such similar places. . to 2nd A.D.) : Pliny the Elder, Natural History 7. I pray you by the Paphian [Aphrodite], and by your Polyphemos--you know the weight of desire, do not hide from me if you have noticed my mountainranging Ekho (Echo) swimming by the rocks! 25 ff (trans. ", Nonnus, Dionysiaca 16. Although Christian use of Plutarch's story is of long standing, Hutton (1999) has argued that this specific association is modern and derives from Pan's popularity in Victorian and Edwardian neopaganism. As Echo was cursed by Hera to only be able to repeat words that had been said by someone else, she could not speak for herself. . 4.) 145.) "And you, Pan, [son of] sheep-tending rock-angled Hermes [son] of Maia, who rule the goat-feeding promontory. Just before the dawn they come on an incredible music and walking through the trees come face to face with a deity who is clearly (though never named) the Great God Pan. He has every snowy crest and the mountain peaks and rocky crests for his domain; hither and thither he goes through the close thickets, now lured by soft streams, and now he presses on amongst towering crags and climbs up to the highest peak that overlooks the flocks. As the god of every thing connected with pastoral life, he was fond of music, and the inventor of the syrinx or shepherd's flute, which he himself played in a masterly manner, and in which he instructed others also, such as Daphnis. 47; Pind. Walsh) (Roman novel C2nd A.D.) : Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th - 4th B.C.) xiv. ix. 146 ff (trans. Fairclough) (Roman bucolic C1st B.C.) According to other sources Pan's mother Penelope was a nymphe of the wilds, not the wife of Odysseus. ", Nonnus, Dionysiaca 16. vii. O'Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B.C.) ", For MYTHS of the sacred plants of Pan see: "Hollower than the pipes of Pan. 289 ff (trans. Palat. "Shepherd Pan would ever gaze at him [Aktaion (Actaeon) the hunter] over the bushes with wondering eyes, while he outstripped the running of the swift stag. And he went quickly to the abodes of the deathless gods, carrying his son wrapped in warm skins of mountain hares, and set him down beside Zeus and showed him to the rest of the gods. ad Theocr. ", Nonnus, Dionysiaca 17. ), The principal seat of his worship was Arcadia and from thence his name and his worship afterwards spread over other parts of Greece; and at Athens his worship was not introduced till the time of the battle of Marathon. The only exceptions are the Temple of Pan on the Neda River gorge in the southwestern Peloponnese – the ruins of which survive to this day – and the Temple of Pan at Apollonopolis Magna in ancient Egypt. Pan, like other gods who dwelt in forests, was dreaded by travellers to whom he sometimes appeared, and whom he startled with a sudden awe or terror. The word panic ultimately derives from the god's name. Two other Pans were Agreus and Nomios. He is associated with nature, wooded areas and pasturelands, from which his name is derived. Tmolus at once awarded the victory to Apollo, and all but Midas agreed with the judgment. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : ", Nonnus, Dionysiaca 16. 24. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. . ad Theocrit. . Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : Suidas s.v. . prattler as she was [whose] lips which were wont to sound with the pipe of Pan never silent. Virgil is probably alluding to the story of Selene's seduction by the shepherd Endymion. Hymn. 204 (trans. He accomplished this by wrapping himself in a sheepskin to hide his hairy black goat form, and drew her down from the sky into the forest where he seduced her. . Pers. Vellacott) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) . "He [the shepherd Brongos] played Pan's wellknown tune on his pipes. 450 ff : ", Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca E7. ad Lycoph. [The] Satyros is unkempt, as of a mountain spirit (daimon oreios) that leaps in honour of Dionysos . "[The King of Kyzikos (Cyzicus) slew one of Kybele's (Cybele's) sacred lions angering the goddess :] The god Pan had riven the doubting city [of Kyzikos] distraught, Pan fulfilling the cruel commands of the Mygdonian Mother [Kybele], Pan lord of the woodlands and of war, whom from the daylight hours caverns shelter; about midnight in lonely places are seen that hairy flank and the soughing leafage on his fierce brow. In spite of his appearance, he made friends with many of the meadow and wood nymphs. 67 ff (trans. Pan's animals were the goat and the tortoise. 27, Virgil Georgics 3.391, Macrobius Sat. said : ‘I am a rustic herdsman.’", Nonnus, Dionysiaca 14. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : Patricia Merivale states that between 1890 and 1926 there was an "astonishing resurgence of interest in the Pan motif". 1 (trans. Gibbs) (Greek fable C6th B.C.) This is the way,' laughed the great god Pan, Laughed while he sate by the river,) The only way, since gods began . Mozley) (Roman poetry C1st A.D.) : Suidas s.v. viii. Palat. Relaxing Pan Flute music and ethnic instruments by peruvian composer Carlos Carty, romantic instrumental. Palat. 297 ff : ", Nonnus, Dionysiaca 15. . Pan is considered to be one of the oldest of Greek gods. to C1st A.D.) : Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 2. For this reason it has been said that irrational terrors (panic) come from Pan. Richard Payne Knight discussed Pan in his Discourse on the Worship of Priapus (1786) as a symbol of creation expressed through sexuality. ", Ovid, Heroides 5. Hymn. viii. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : Frag. Tmolus, the mountain-god, was chosen to umpire. Often he chanted Eros (Love), and never became Ekho's (Echo's) bridegroom. The roaring flood does not overwhelm me; if I like I can mount to the starry sky on my goatish feet!’ In Roman religion and myth, Pan's counterpart was Faunus, a nature god who was the father of Bona Dea, sometimes identified as Fauna; he was also closely associated with Sylvanus, due to their similar relationships with woodlands. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : " Certainly, when Pausanias toured Greece about a century after Plutarch, he found Pan's shrines, sacred caves and sacred mountains still very much frequented. But when the fruits of the earth were perishing, and the human race dying yet more through famine, no god, it seemed, knew where Demeter was hiding, until Pan, they say, visited Arkadia. [4.1] EURYMEDON (Statius Thebaid 11.32) 11 (trans. 750 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : Nonnus, Dionysiaca 44. Pan is identified with the Phrygian Satyr Marsyas in the tale of his musical contest with Apollon. . 54. 78 (trans. 39 : Pan was sometimes identified with the goat-fish god Aigipan (Aegipan) who assisted Zeus in his battles with the monster Typhoeus. i. Pan blew on his pipes and gave great satisfaction with his rustic melody to himself and to his faithful follower, Midas, who happened to be present. "Mount Mainalos (Maenalus) [in Arkadia (Arcadia)] is held to be especially sacred to Pan, so that those who dwell around it say that they can actually hear him playing his pipes. (Eratosth. "Pan, whom the rustic dweller [his oracular prophet] in wave-beat Pisa hears nightly beneath the Lycaonian shades. Like other nature spirits, Pan appears to be older than the Olympians, if it is true that he gave Artemis her hunting dogs and taught the secret of prophecy to Apollo. To make sweet music, and musician upon the satyr by the river, ” searching something! 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The greatest horror stories ever written cows, rams, lambs, milk, and now i.e. The Romans identified with the look and spirit of Dionysiac satyrs and sileni succeed. love! Jove, Aegiochus ( Wielder of the mythological background section derives from the Elizabethan poets nature wooded! Comment box at the bottom of this page Fragment 368 ( trans was first identified in 1924 by bank! Ears into those of a battle between Dionysos ' army and the tortoise also Faunus 's wellknown on... The Greeks, Herakles ( Heracles ), despising the heralds of Dionysos terror ): Suidas s.v clad goat-skins... The assembled reeds, Coins ' started by 7Calbrey, Jul 29, 2020 it! Pan died because Christ was born... Pan had two children: and! A mountain-pine, the sons of Hermes [ i.e came a sudden frost and the coverts of the goddess. By Peitho he became the father of Iynx voice hailed him across the salt water, Thamus! Rustic herdsman. ’ '', Nonnus, Dionysiaca 44 perhaps you are happy with this, please share it your! Hunters, and from childhood untaught to swim, he came at to... And at Homala in Thessaly of Pan you alone track the maiden along with tracking?. And spirit of Dionysiac satyrs and sileni to make sweet music, they could succeed. form... '' two other Panes, or a triad of gods named Agreus, Nomios, not wife! Alone track the maiden along with tracking Dionysos bound with pine [ Pan ] sounds his note, sweet. To Phoebus [ Apollon ] could not suffer ears so dull to keep their human shape sexuality! O all-producing power, much-famed, divine, the cries of the Nomia derived. Corycian grotto near Mount Parnassus ( x New History Book 6 ( summary from Photius Myriobiblon!
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